Exercise, Nutrition, and Bone Health

Morris-Naumann, Fiona L. & Wark, John D. (2015) Exercise, Nutrition, and Bone Health. In Holick, Michael F. & Nieves, Jeri W. (Eds.) Nutrition and Bone Health. Springer New York, pp. 543-560.

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Optimal bone metabolism is the result of hormonal, nutritional, and mechanical harmony, and a deficit in one area is usually impossible to overcome by improvements in others. Exercise during growth influences bone modeling locally at the regions being loaded, whereas calcium is thought to act systemically to influence bone remodeling. Despite acting through different mechanisms, a growing body of research suggests that exercise and calcium may not operate independently. Low dietary calcium intake or reduced bioavailability may minimize the adaptive response to exercise-induced bone loading. Conversely, adequate levels of calcium intake can maximize the positive effect of physical activity on bone health during the growth period of children and adolescents. Research also suggests that adequate levels of calcium intake can maximize bone density at the regions being loaded during exercise. Achieving optimal bone health and minimizing one’s risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life depend on a lifelong approach. This approach relies on the establishment of an optimum level of bone during the growth years, with a subsequent goal to maintain and slow the rate of age-related bone loss thereafter. Exercise, adequate nutrition, and optimal hormone levels are the components that influence the bone outcome. Making healthy nutritional choices, engaging in weight-bearing physical activity, and ensuring optimal hormone levels during growth provides a window of opportunity to build optimal bone mass, to reduce the risk of fracture later in life. Concurrent management of fracture risk with a physical activity prescription, adequate nutrition, and pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis when required offers the best approach to optimal bone health throughout adulthood.

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ID Code: 83964
Item Type: Book Chapter
Keywords: Exercise, Nutrition, Bone Health, Osteoporosis
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_32
ISBN: 9781493920006
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Deposited On: 07 May 2015 01:45
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2015 16:12

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