Environmental contributions to childhood cancers
Norman, Rosana E., Ryan, Alex, Grant, Kristen, Sitas, Freddy, & Scott, James G. (2014) Environmental contributions to childhood cancers. Journal of Environmental Immunology and Toxicology, 1(4), pp. 190-202.
Recent increases in incidence of childhood cancers cannot be explained by genetic factors. Identifying the environmental risk factors that may explain increases in cancer incidence is an important step to reduce the overall burden of disease. The risk factors for which the most evidence exists include ionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation and chemicals such as benzene and pesticides, biological agents as well as parental smoking and parental substance use. Regarding the link between exposure to non-ionising radiation and development of cancer, the evidence was limited. Maternal vitamin supplementation may reduce the risk of cancer in offspring. Environmental exposures encountered during development and early childhood may be even more important contributors to the risk of cancer than exposures in adulthood and the early developmental period presents an important opportunity for cancer prevention.
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