Modulating exercise-induced hormesis: Does less equal more?

Peake, Jonathan M., Markworth, James F., Nosaka, Kazunori, Raastad, Truls, Wadley, Glenn, & Coffey, Vernon G. (2015) Modulating exercise-induced hormesis: Does less equal more? Journal of Applied Physiology, 119(3), pp. 172-189.

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Hormesis enco 16 mpasses the notion that low levels of stress stimulate or upregulate 17 existing cellular and molecular pathways that improve the capacity of cells and organisms to 18 withstand greater stress. This notion underlies much of what we know about how exercise 19 conditions the body and induces long-term adaptations. During exercise, the body is 20 exposed to various forms of stress, including thermal, metabolic, hypoxic, oxidative, and 21 mechanical stress. These stressors activate biochemical messengers, which in turn activate 22 various signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and adaptive responses. 23 Historically, antioxidant supplements, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 24 cryotherapy have been favored to attenuate or counteract exercise-induced oxidative stress 25 and inflammation. However, reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators are key 26 signaling molecules in muscle, and such strategies may mitigate adaptations to exercise. 27 Conversely, withholding dietary carbohydrate and restricting muscle blood flow during 28 exercise may augment adaptations to exercise. In this review article, we combine, integrate, 29 and apply knowledge about the fundamental mechanisms of exercise adaptation. We also 30 critically evaluate the rationale for using interventions that target these mechanisms under 31 the overarching concept of hormesis. There is currently insufficient evidence to establish 32 whether these treatments exert dose-dependent effects on muscle adaptation. However, 33 there appears to be some dissociation between the biochemical/molecular effects and 34 functional/performance outcomes of some of these treatments. Although several of these 35 treatments influence common kinases, transcription factors and proteins, it remains to be 36 determined if these interventions complement or negate each other, and whether such 37 effects are strong enough to influence adaptations to exercise.

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ID Code: 84356
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01055.2014
ISSN: 1522-1601
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > HUMAN MOVEMENT AND SPORTS SCIENCE (110600) > Exercise Physiology (110602)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 American Physiological Society
Deposited On: 20 May 2015 23:20
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2016 13:44

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