# Two-dimensional bow and stern flows in a finite-depth fluid with constant vorticity

McCue, Scott W. (2000) Two-dimensional bow and stern flows in a finite-depth fluid with constant vorticity. PhD thesis, University of Queensland.

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## Abstract

This thesis is concerned with two-dimensional free surface flows past semi-infinite surface-piercing bodies in a fluid of finite-depth. Throughout the study, it is assumed that the fluid in question is incompressible, and that the effects of viscosity and surface tension are negligible. The problems considered are physically important, since they can be used to model the flow of water near the bow or stern of a wide, blunt ship. Alternatively, the solutions can be interpreted as describing the flow into, or out of, a horizontal slot. In the past, all research conducted on this topic has been dedicated to the situation where the flow is irrotational. The results from such studies are extended here, by allowing the fluid to have constant vorticity throughout the flow domain. In addition, new results for irrotational flow are also presented.

When studying the flow of a fluid past a surface-piercing body, it is important to stipulate in advance the nature of the free surface as it intersects the body. Three different possibilities are considered in this thesis. In the first of these possibilities, it is assumed that the free surface rises up and meets the body at a stagnation point. For this configuration, the nonlinear problem is solved numerically with the use of a boundary integral method in the physical plane. Here the semi-infinite body is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with a rounded corner. Supercritical solutions which satisfy the radiation condition are found for various values of the Froude number and the dimensionless vorticity. Subcritical solutions are also found; however these solutions violate the radiation condition and are characterised by a train of waves upstream. In the limit that the height of the body above the horizontal bottom vanishes, the flow approaches that due to a submerged line sink in a \$90^\circ\$ corner. This limiting problem is also examined as a special case.

The second configuration considered in this thesis involves the free surface attaching smoothly to the front face of the rectangular shaped body. For this configuration, nonlinear solutions are computed using a similar numerical scheme to that used in the stagnant attachment case. It is found that these solution exist for all supercritical Froude numbers. The related problem of the cusp-like flow due to a submerged sink in a corner is also considered.

Finally, the flow of a fluid emerging from beneath a semi-infinite flat plate is examined. Here the free surface is assumed to detach from the trailing edge of the plate horizontally. A linear problem is formulated under the assumption that the elevation of the plate is close to the undisturbed free surface level. This problem is solved exactly using the Wiener-Hopf technique, and subcritical solutions are found which are characterised by a train of sinusoidal waves in the far field. The nonlinear problem is also considered. Exact relations between certain parameters for supercritical flow are derived using conservation of mass and momentum arguments, and these are confirmed numerically. Nonlinear subcritical solutions are computed, and the results are compared to those predicted by the linear theory.

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