The origin of a large (>3km) maar volcano by coalescence of multiple shallow craters: Lake Purrumbete maar, southeastern Australia
Jordan, S.C., Cas, R.A.F., & Hayman, P.C. (2013) The origin of a large (>3km) maar volcano by coalescence of multiple shallow craters: Lake Purrumbete maar, southeastern Australia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 254, pp. 5-22.
Lake Purrumbete maar is located in the intraplate, monogenetic Newer Volcanics Province in southeastern Australia. The extremely large crater of 3000. m in diameter formed on an intersection of two fault lines and comprises at least three coalesced vents. The evolution of these vents is controlled by the interaction of the tectonic setting and the properties of both hard and soft rock aquifers. Lithics in the maar deposits originate from country rock formations less than 300. m deep, indicating that the large size of the crater cannot only be the result of the downwards migration of the explosion foci in a single vent. Vertical crater walls and primary inward dipping beds evidence that the original size of the crater has been largely preserved. Detailed mapping of the facies distributions, the direction of transport of base surges and pyroclastic flows, and the distribution of ballistic block fields, form the basis for the reconstruction of the complex eruption history,which is characterised by alternations of the eruption style between relatively dry and wet phreatomagmatic conditions, and migration of the vent location along tectonic structures. Three temporally separated eruption phases are recognised, each starting at the same crater located directly at the intersection of two local fault lines. Activity then moved quickly to different locations. A significant volcanic hiatus between two of the three phases shows that the magmatic system was reactivated. The enlargement of especially the main crater by both lateral and vertical growth led to the interception of the individual craters and the formation of the large circular crater. Lake Purrumbete maar is an excellent example of how complicated the evolution of large, seemingly simple, circular maar volcanoes can be, and raises the question if these systems are actually monogenetic.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||Crater coalescence, Extremely large maar volcanoes, Maar diatreme, Phreatomagmatism, Vent migration, Crater wall, Diatreme, Dry and wet, Facies distribution, Fault line, Lithics, Local faults, Magmatic systems, Pyroclastic flows, Rock formations, Soft rocks, Southeastern australia, Tectonic settings, Tectonic structure, Three phasis, Vertical growth, Volcanics, Aquifers, Hydrogeology, Lakes, Volcanoes, Coalescence, crater, maar, pyroclastic flow, tectonic reconstruction, tectonic setting, venting, volcanic eruption, Australia, Lake Purrumbete, Victoria [Australia]|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > GEOLOGY (040300)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EARTH SCIENCES (040000) > GEOLOGY (040300) > Volcanology (040314)
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Earth, Environmental & Biological Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Deposited On:||23 Jun 2015 23:20|
|Last Modified:||25 Jun 2015 03:36|
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