Reproducible and label-free biosensor for the selective extraction and rapid detection of proteins in biological fluids

Sivanesan, Arumugam, Izake, Emad L., Agoston, Roland, Ayoko, Godwin A., & Sillence, Martin (2015) Reproducible and label-free biosensor for the selective extraction and rapid detection of proteins in biological fluids. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 13(43).

View at publisher (open access)


Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein hormone of ∼34 kDa, is an important hematopoietic growth factor, mainly produced in the kidney and controls the number of red blood cells circulating in the blood stream. Sensitive and rapid recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) detection tools that improve on the current laborious EPO detection techniques are in high demand for both clinical and sports industry. A sensitive aptamer-functionalized biosensor (aptasensor) has been developed by controlled growth of gold nanostructures (AuNS) over a gold substrate (pAu/AuNS). The aptasensor selectively binds to rHuEPO and, therefore, was used to extract and detect the drug from horse plasma by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Due to the nanogap separation between the nanostructures, the high population and distribution of hot spots on the pAu/AuNS substrate surface, strong signal enhancement was acquired. By using wide area illumination (WAI) setting for the Raman detection, a low RSD of 4.92% over 150 SERS measurements was achieved. The significant reproducibility of the new biosensor addresses the serious problem of SERS signal inconsistency that hampers the use of the technique in the field. The WAI setting is compatible with handheld Raman devices. Therefore, the new aptasensor can be used for the selective extraction of rHuEPO from biological fluids and subsequently screened with handheld Raman spectrometer for SERS based in-field protein detection.

Impact and interest:

8 citations in Scopus
7 citations in Web of Science®
Search Google Scholar™

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

25 since deposited on 24 Jun 2015
10 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 84978
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Aptamer-functionalized biosensor (aptasensor); Nanosensor; Homogenous SERS; Wide area illumination; Erythropoietin (EPO); Horse plasma
DOI: 10.1186/s12951-015-0102-8
ISSN: 1477-3155
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Schools > School of Earth, Environmental & Biological Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 Sivanesan et al.
Copyright Statement: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
(, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license,
and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (
publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Deposited On: 24 Jun 2015 22:12
Last Modified: 25 Jun 2015 21:58

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page