Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Foot Function Index to Spanish

Paez-Moguer, Joaquin, Budiman-Mak, Elly, & Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I. (2014) Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Foot Function Index to Spanish. Foot and Ankle Surgery, 20(1), pp. 34-39.

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The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the Foot Function Index to the Spanish (FFI-Sp) following the guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.


A cross-sectional study 80 participants with some foot pathology. A statistical analysis was made, including a correlation study with other questionnaires (the Foot Health Status Questionnaire, EuroQol 5-D, Visual Analogue Pain Scale, and the Short Form SF-12 Health Survey). Data analysis included reliability, construct and criterion-related validity and factor analyses.


The principal components analysis with varimax rotation produced 3 principal factors that explained 80% of the variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fit with a comparative fit index of 0.78. The FFI-Sp demonstrated excellent internal consistency on the three subscales: pain 0.95; disability 0.96; and activity limitation 0.69, the subscale that scored lowest. The correlation between the FFI-Sp and the other questionnaires was high to moderate.


The Spanish version of the Foot Function Index (FFI-Sp) is a tool that is a valid and reliable tool with a very good internal consistency for use in the assessment of pain, disability and limitation of the function of the foot, for use both in clinic and research.

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7 citations in Scopus
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5 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 85530
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
DOI: 10.1016/j.fas.2013.09.005
ISSN: 1460-9584
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Clinical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2014 Elsevier
Deposited On: 02 Sep 2015 03:48
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2015 01:46

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