Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group
Schmaal, L., Veltman, D.J., van Erp, T.G.M., Sämann, P.G., Frodl, T., Jahanshad, N., Loehrer, E., Tiemeier, H., Hofman, A., Niessen, W.J., Vernooij, M.W., Ikram, M. A., Wittfeld, K., Grabe, H.J., Block, A., Hegenscheid, K., Völzke, H., Hoehn, D., Czisch, M., Lagopoulos, J., Hatton, S.N., Hickie, I.B., Goya-Maldonado, R., Krämer, B., Gruber, O., Couvy-Duchesne, B., Rentería, M.E., Strike, L.T., Mills, N.T., de Zubicaray, G.I., McMahon, K.L., Medland, S.E., Martin, N.G., Gillespie, N.A., Wright, M.J., Hall, G.B., MacQueen, G.M., Frey, E.M., Carballedo, A., van Velzen, L.S., van Tol, M.J., van der Wee, N.J., Veer, I.M., Walter, H., Schnell, K., Schramm, E., Normann, C., Schoepf, D., Konrad, C., Zurowski, B., Nickson, T., McIntosh, A.M., Papmeyer, M., Whalley, H.C., Sussmann, J.E., Godlewska, B.R., Cowen, P.J., Fischer, F.H., Rose, M., Penninx, B.W.J.H., Thompson, P.M., & Hibar, D.P. (2016) Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(6), pp. 806-812.
The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to identify subcortical brain volumes that robustly discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls. Relative to controls, patients had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (Cohen’s d=−0.14, % difference=−1.24). This effect was driven by patients with recurrent MDD (Cohen’s d=−0.17, % difference=−1.44), and we detected no differences between first episode patients and controls. Age of onset ⩽21 was associated with a smaller hippocampus (Cohen’s d=−0.20, % difference=−1.85) and a trend toward smaller amygdala (Cohen’s d=−0.11, % difference=−1.23) and larger lateral ventricles (Cohen’s d=0.12, % difference=5.11). Symptom severity at study inclusion was not associated with any regional brain volumes. Sample characteristics such as mean age, proportion of antidepressant users and proportion of remitted patients, and methodological characteristics did not significantly moderate alterations in brain volumes in MDD. Samples with a higher proportion of antipsychotic medication users showed larger caudate volumes in MDD patients compared with controls. This currently largest worldwide effort to identify subcortical brain alterations showed robust smaller hippocampal volumes in MDD patients, moderated by age of onset and first episode versus recurrent episode status.
Impact and interest:
Citation counts are sourced monthly from and citation databases.
These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.
Citations counts from theindexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.
Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited|
|Deposited On:||28 Sep 2015 02:59|
|Last Modified:||15 Mar 2017 22:50|
Repository Staff Only: item control page