Eye-safe UV stand-off Raman spectroscopy for the ranged detection of explosives in the field

Carroll, Joshua A., Izake, Emad L., Cletus, Biju, & Jaatinen, Esa (2015) Eye-safe UV stand-off Raman spectroscopy for the ranged detection of explosives in the field. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 46(3), pp. 333-338.

View at publisher


Increasing worldwide terrorist attacks involving explosives presents a growing need for a rapid and ranged explosive detection method that can safely be deployed in the field. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy shows great promise; however, the radiant exposures of lasers required for adequate signal generation are often much greater than what is safe for the eye or the skin, restricting use of the technique to un-populated areas. Here, by determining the safe exposure levels for lasers typically used in Raman spectroscopy, optimal parameter values are identified, which produce the largest possible detection range using power densities that do not exceed the eye-safe limit. It is shown that safe ultraviolet pulse energies can be more than three orders of magnitude greater than equivalent safe visible pulse energies. Coupling this to the 16-fold increase in Raman signal obtained in the ultraviolet at 266 nm over that at 532 nm results in a 131 times larger detection range for the eye-safe 266-nm system over an equivalent eye-safe 532-nm laser system. For the Raman system described here, this translates to a maximum range of 42 m for detecting Teflon with a 266-nm laser emitting a 100-mm diameter beam of 23.5-mJ nanosecond pulses.

Impact and interest:

0 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
1 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

Full-text downloads:

13 since deposited on 22 Jul 2015
11 in the past twelve months

Full-text downloads displays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.

ID Code: 85941
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: stand-off Raman, eye-safe, ultraviolet, MPE, Teflon
DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4642
ISSN: 1097-4555
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Copyright Statement: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Carroll J. A., Izake E. L., Cletus B., and Jaatinen E. (2015), Eye-safe UV stand-off Raman spectroscopy for the ranged detection of explosives in the field, J. Raman Spectrosc., 46; pages 333–338, which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1002/jrs.4642. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Deposited On: 22 Jul 2015 23:18
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2016 14:32

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page