The effect of graphene oxide and its oxidized debris on the cure chemistry and interphase structure of epoxy nanocomposites
Galpaya, Dilini G.D., Fernando, Joseph F.S., Rintoul, Llew, Motta, Nunzio, Waclawik, Eric R., Yan, Cheng, & George, Graeme A. (2015) The effect of graphene oxide and its oxidized debris on the cure chemistry and interphase structure of epoxy nanocomposites. Polymer, 71(5), pp. 122-134.
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The influence of graphene oxide (GO) and its surface oxidized debris (OD) on the cure chemistry of an amine cured epoxy resin has been investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (FT-IES) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Spectral analysis of IR radiation emitted at the cure temperature from thin films of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resin (DGEBA) and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) curing agent with and without GO allowed the cure kinetics of the interphase between the bulk resin and GO to be monitored in real time, by measuring both the consumption of primary (1°) amine and epoxy groups, formation of ether groups as well as computing the profiles for formation of secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) amines. OD was isolated from as-produced GO (aGO) by a simple autoclave method to give OD-free autoclaved GO (acGO). It has been found that the presence of OD on the GO prevents active sites on GO surfaces fully catalysing and participating in the reaction of DGEBA with DDM, which results in slower reaction and a lower crosslink density of the three-dimensional networks in the aGO-resin interphase compared to the acGO-resin interphase. We also determined that OD itself promoted DGEBA homopolymerization. A DSC study further confirmed that the aGO nanocomposite exhibited lower Tg while acGO nanocomposite showed higher Tg compared to neat resin because of the difference in crosslink densities of the matrix around the different GOs.
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