Confronting expectation in grade 4: Tossing two coins

Watson, Jane & English, Lyn D. (2015) Confronting expectation in grade 4: Tossing two coins. Jornal Internacional de Estudos em Educação Matemática [International Journal for Studies in Mathematics Education], 8(3), pp. 1-30.

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This study focuses on the experiences of 91 Grade 4 students who had been introduced to expectation and variation through trials of tossing a single coin many times. They were then given two coins to toss simultaneously and asked to state their expectation of the chances for the possible outcomes, in a similar manner expressed for a single coin. This paper documents the journey of the students in discovering that generally their initial expectation for two coins was incorrect and that despite variation, a large number of tosses could confirm a new expectation.

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ID Code: 87847
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Probability, Expectation, Variation, Mathematics Education, Elementary Studies, Coin Tossing
ISSN: 2176-5634
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EDUCATION (130000) > CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY (130200) > Curriculum and Pedagogy Theory and Development (130202)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > EDUCATION (130000) > CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY (130200) > Mathematics and Numeracy Curriculum and Pedagogy (130208)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Teacher Education & Leadership
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Education
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 The Author(s)
Deposited On: 29 Sep 2015 22:34
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2015 22:34

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