Prevalence of retinopathy among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus: the Sri Lanka diabetes and Cardiovascular Study

Katulanda, Prasad, Ranasinghe, Priyanga, & Mallika Arachchige, Ranil (2014) Prevalence of retinopathy among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus: the Sri Lanka diabetes and Cardiovascular Study. BMC Ophthalmology, 14, Article number-100.

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  • At present there are no large scale nationally-representative studies from Sri Lanka on the prevalence and associations of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for DR in a community-based nationally-representative sample of adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka.


  • A cross-sectional community-based national study among 5,000 adults (≥18 years) was conducted in Sri Lanka, using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Ophthalmological evaluation of patients with ‘known’ diabetes (previously diagnosed at a government hospital or by a registered medical practitioner) was done using indirect ophthalmoscopy. A binary-logistic regression analysis was performed with ‘presence of DR’ as the dichotomous dependent variable and other independent covariates.


  • Crude prevalence of diabetes was 12.0%(n=536),of which 344 were patients with ‘known’ diabetes.Mean age was 56.4 ± 10.9 years and 37.3% were males. Prevalence of any degree of DR was 27.4% (Males-30.5%, Females-25.6%; p = 0.41). In patients with DR, majority had NPDR (93.4%), while 5.3% had maculopathy. Patients with DR had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without. In the binary-logistic regression analysis in all adults duration of diabetes (OR:1.07), current smoking (OR:1.67) and peripheral neuropathy (OR:1.72)all were significantly associated with DR.


  • Nearly 1/3rd of Sri Lankan adults with self-reported diabetes are having retinopathy. DR was associated with diabetes duration, cigarette smoking and peripheral neuropathy. However, further prospective follow up studies are required to establish causality for identified risk factors.

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ID Code: 88605
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, iabetes mellitus, revalence, Adults, Sri Lanka
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-14-100
ISSN: 1471-2415
Divisions: Past > Research Centres > Centre for Health Research
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Copyright Owner: © 2014 Katulanda et al
Copyright Statement: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Deposited On: 06 Nov 2015 00:57
Last Modified: 25 Jun 2017 20:01

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