Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology
Thai, Phong K., O'Brien, Jake, Jiang, Guangming, Gernjak, Wolfgang, Yuan, Zhiguo, Eaglesham, Geoff, & Mueller, Jochen F. (2014) Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology. Water Research, 55, pp. 272-279.
Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||Stability, Sewer reactor, Degradation, Sewer biofilms, Wastewater analysis|
|Divisions:||Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
|Deposited On:||14 Oct 2015 01:45|
|Last Modified:||23 Oct 2015 01:38|
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