The Black & Tans and Auxiliaries in Ireland, 1920-1921: Their Origins, Roles and Legacy
Ainsworth, John S. (2001) The Black & Tans and Auxiliaries in Ireland, 1920-1921: Their Origins, Roles and Legacy. In Annual Conference of the Queensland History Teachers' Association, May 12 2001, May 12th 2001, Brisbane, Queensland.. (Unpublished)
From January 1919 until a truce came into effect on 11 July 1921, a state of undeclared war existed in some areas of Ireland between guerilla units of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), representing the independence aspirations of militant Irish nationalism, and the forces of the British Crown who were charged with the task of restoring law and order in this troubled part of the United Kingdom. With neither a state of war nor martial law being declared by the British authorities in Ireland – martial law did come eventually in December 1920/January 1921 but applied only to eight counties in the southern-most part of the country – the military was confined largely to a supporting role, leaving the civil administration based at Dublin Castle heavily reliant on the enforcement powers of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) in its efforts to curb the insurgent Irish nationalists. From the IRA’s perspective, the RIC was seen as "an instrument designed to overawe in every locality any opposition to the regime it served". In a response to this apparent menace, early in 1919 the IRA began a campaign of intimidation against officers of the RIC, who were subjected to threats, violent attacks and ostracizing of their families from the local community. Other locals who dared to show support or even sympathy for RIC families thereafter were similarly intimidated. The IRA killed 18 policemen altogether over the twelve-month period ending in December 1919. Six months later, police casualties had risen to a total of 55 killed and a further 74 wounded, indicating a considerable escalation early in 1920 in the IRA's campaign of violence against the RIC.
Citation countsare sourced monthly fromand citation databases.
These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.
Citations counts from theindexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.
Full-text downloadsdisplays the total number of times this work’s files (e.g., a PDF) have been downloaded from QUT ePrints as well as the number of downloads in the previous 365 days. The count includes downloads for all files if a work has more than one.
|Item Type:||Conference Paper|
|Additional Information:||Author contact details: firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Keywords:||Black & Tans, Auxiliaries, Ireland|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY (210000) > HISTORICAL STUDIES (210300) > European History (excl. British Classical Greek and Roman) (210307)|
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY (210000) > HISTORICAL STUDIES (210300) > British History (210305)
|Divisions:||Current > Research Centres > Centre for Social Change Research|
Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > QUT Carseldine - Humanities & Human Services
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2001 John Ainsworth|
|Deposited On:||21 Jul 2004|
|Last Modified:||09 Jun 2010 22:21|
Repository Staff Only: item control page