Bearing-only Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Vision-Based Mobile Robots
Huang, Henry, Maire, Frederic D., & Keeratipranon, Narongdech (2007) Bearing-only Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Vision-Based Mobile Robots. In Obinata, Goro & Dutta, Ashish (Eds.) Vision Systems-Applications. I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, pp. 335-360.
To navigate successfully, a mobile robot must be able to estimate the spatial relationships of the objects of interest accurately. A SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) system employs its sensor data to build incrementally a map of an unknown environment and to localize itself in the map simultaneously. Thanks to recent advances in computer vision and cheaper cameras, vision sensors have become popular to solve SLAM problems. The proposed bearing-only SLAM system requires only a single camera which is simple and affordable for the navigation of domestic robots such as autonomous lawn-mowers and vacuum cleaners.
Existing approaches to bearing-only SLAM require the readings from an odometer to estimate the robot locations prior to landmark initialization. This chapter presents a new 2-dimensional bearing-only SLAM system that relies only on the bearing measurements from a single camera. Our proposed system does not require any other sensors like range sensors or wheel encoders. The trade-off is that it requires the robot to be able to move in a straight line for a short while to initialize the landmarks. Once the landmark positions are estimated, localization becomes easy. The induced map created by our method is only determined up to a scale factor as only bearing information is used (no range or odometry information). All the object coordinates in the map multiplied by a scale factor would not change the bearing values.
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