Are we there yet? Advancing women in Canada and Australia: Similar goals, different policies

Ng, Eddy & French, Erica L. (2015) Are we there yet? Advancing women in Canada and Australia: Similar goals, different policies. In Equality Diversity Inclusion 2015 Conference: Dealing with Diverse Identities, 6–8 July 2015, Tel-Aviv, Israel.


Differences in opportunities and outcomes in the workplace are inherent in a free and competitive market. However when differences between individuals and groups are identified as resulting from particular policies, behaviours or attitudes, any resulting inequality may be identified as unfair. Increasingly, unfair disparities in societies and their workplaces are regularly challenged. Many of the unfair disparities are recognised as caused through unfair discrimination (Anker 1997). When defining discrimination, the International Labour Organization Convention (ILO) No. 111 defines it as “any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction, or social origin, which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation” (ILO, 1958). Yet, the argument for addressing this ideal of ‘equality of opportunity’ is complex. Ekmekci (2013) identifies the difficulties as the determination of whether any process should be based on equality of opportunity or equality of outcome. In addition, there is the difficulty of determining what exactly constitutes a process for addressing unfair disparity due to the haziness of what constitutes discrimination and controversy in the meaning as well as policy implications of equality (Tomei, 2003).

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ID Code: 90919
Item Type: Conference Paper
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Advancing Women, Canada, Australia
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > COMMERCE MANAGEMENT TOURISM AND SERVICES (150000) > BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT (150300) > Human Resources Management (150305)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > QUT Business School
Current > Schools > School of Management
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 [Please consult the author]
Deposited On: 02 Dec 2015 03:29
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2015 10:59

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