Development of a vaccine for Chlamydia trachomatis: Challenges and current progress

Hafner, Louise M. & Timms, Peter (2015) Development of a vaccine for Chlamydia trachomatis: Challenges and current progress. Vaccine: Development and Therapy, 5, pp. 45-58.

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Chlamydia trachomatis remains an enigmatic bacterial pathogen with no vaccine yet available to treat human ocular and genital tract infections caused by tissue-tropic serovars of the organism. Globally, it is the leading cause of preventable blindness as well as the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The pathogen has a range of virulence factors that enable it to successfully evade both the innate and adaptive immune system of the host. The host immune system, although protective, paradoxically is also associated closely with the pathologies of trachoma and pelvic inflammatory disease – disease sequelae of some chlamydial infections and reinfections in some genetically susceptible hosts. In this review, we focus on what is known currently about the pathogenesis of ocular and genital infections caused by this mucosal pathogen. We also discuss novel insights into the pathogenesis of infections caused by the genital and ocular serovars of C. trachomatis, including a discussion of both pathogen and host factors, such as the human microbiota at these mucosal sites as well as the current immunological challenges facing vaccine development. Finally, we discuss the current progress toward development of a vaccine against C. trachomatis. A wide range of recombinant protein antigens are being identified and, hence, are available for vaccine trials. A plasmid-free live strain has recently been produced and evaluated in the mouse (Chlamydia muridarum) and monkey (C. trachomatis) models. The data for ocular infections in the monkey model was particularly encouraging, although the path to regulatory approval of a live vaccine is still uncertain. While still a major challenge, vaccines for ocular and genital C. trachomatis infections are looking more promising.

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ID Code: 91235
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Chlamydia, Vaccines, Progress, C. trachomatis, ocular and genital infections
DOI: 10.2147/VDT.S69487
ISSN: 2230-2298
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 Hafner and Timms
Copyright Statement: This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.
Deposited On: 15 Dec 2015 02:29
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2015 21:10

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