Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia
Gomez Ramos, M.J., Heffernan, A.L., Toms, L.M.L., Calafat, A.M., Ye, X., Hobson, P., Broomhall, S., & Mueller, J.F. (2016) Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia. Environment International, 88, pp. 179-186.
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Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n = 24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9 ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from < 0.5 to 775 ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures.
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|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Keywords:||Australia, Biomonitoring, Children, DINCH, Phthalates, Plasticizers, Population monitoring, Urine|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (050000) > ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT (050200) > Environmental Monitoring (050206)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700) > Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified (111799)
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Copyright Statement:||This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/|
|Deposited On:||28 Jan 2016 04:03|
|Last Modified:||01 Feb 2016 01:55|
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