Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage

Notarianni, Marco, Liu, Jinzhang, Vernon, Kristy, & Motta, Nunzio (2016) Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 7, pp. 149-196.

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Abstract

The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage – the key to the portable electronics of the future.

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ID Code: 92616
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Carbon, Nanotubes, Graphene, Solar Cells, Supercapacitors
DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.7.17
ISSN: 2190-4286
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PHYSICAL SCIENCES (020000) > CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS (020400) > Condensed Matter Imaging (020402)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PHYSICAL SCIENCES (020000) > CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS (020400) > Surfaces and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter (020406)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > CHEMICAL SCIENCE (030000) > PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (INCL. STRUCTURAL) (030600) > Electrochemistry (030604)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > TECHNOLOGY (100000) > NANOTECHNOLOGY (100700) > Nanofabrication Growth and Self Assembly (100706)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > TECHNOLOGY (100000) > NANOTECHNOLOGY (100700) > Nanomaterials (100708)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Funding:
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2016 Notarianni et al; licensee Beilstein-Institut.
Copyright Statement: This is an Open Access article under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The license is subject to the Beilstein Journal of
Nanotechnology terms and conditions:
(http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjnano)
The definitive version of this article is the electronic one
which can be found at:
doi:10.3762/bjnano.7.17
Deposited On: 04 Feb 2016 22:35
Last Modified: 09 Feb 2016 06:36

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