Prevention of foot ulcers in the at-risk patient with diabetes: A systematic review

van Netten, J.J., Price, P.E., Lavery, L.A., Monteiro-Soares, M., Rasmussen, A., Jubiz, Y., & Bus, S.A. (2016) Prevention of foot ulcers in the at-risk patient with diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 32(Supplement S1), pp. 84-98.

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Abstract

Background

Prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes is extremely important to help reduce the enormous burden of foot ulceration on both patient and health resources. A comprehensive analysis of reported interventions is not currently available, but is needed to better inform caregivers about effective prevention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent first and recurrent foot ulcers in persons with diabetes who are at risk for ulceration.

Methods

The available medical scientific literature in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database was searched for original research studies on preventative interventions. Both controlled and non-controlled studies were selected. Data from controlled studies were assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers.

Results

From the identified records, a total of 30 controlled studies (of which 19 RCTs) and another 44 non-controlled studies were assessed and described. Few controlled studies, of generally low to moderate quality, were identified on the prevention of a first foot ulcer. For the prevention of recurrent plantar foot ulcers, multiple RCTs with low risk of bias show the benefit for the use of daily foot skin temperature measurements and consequent preventative actions, as well as for therapeutic footwear that demonstrates to relieve plantar pressure and that is worn by the patient. To prevent recurrence, some evidence exists for integrated foot care when it includes a combination of professional foot treatment, therapeutic footwear and patient education; for just a single session of patient education, no evidence exists. Surgical interventions can be effective in selected patients, but the evidence base is small.

Conclusion

The evidence base to support the use of specific self-management and footwear interventions for the prevention of recurrent plantar foot ulcers is quite strong, but is small for the use of other, sometimes widely applied, interventions and is practically nonexistent for the prevention of a first foot ulcer and non-plantar foot ulcer.

Impact and interest:

3 citations in Scopus
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2 citations in Web of Science®

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ID Code: 93249
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Supplement: 2015 IWGDF Guidance on the Prevention and Management of Foot Problems in Diabetes and Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Diabetic Foot, 20–23 May 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic foot, Foot ulcer, Home monitoring, Podiatry, Prevention, Self management, Shoes, Surgery, Systematic review
DOI: 10.1002/dmrr.2701
ISSN: 1520-7552
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Clinical Sciences
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons
Deposited On: 26 Feb 2016 04:17
Last Modified: 02 Mar 2016 05:47

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