Family-based interventions in preventing children and adolescents from using tobacco: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Thomas, Roger, Baker, Philip, & Thomas, Bennett (2016) Family-based interventions in preventing children and adolescents from using tobacco: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Academic Pediatrics. (In Press)
- Tobacco is the main preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Adolescent smoking is increasing in many countries with poorer countries following the earlier experiences of affluent countries. Preventing adolescents starting smoking is crucial to decreasing tobacco-related illness.
- To assess effectiveness of family-based interventions alone and combined with school-based interventions to prevent children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use.
- 14 bibliographic databases and the Internet, journals hand-searched, experts consulted.
Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and Interventions
- Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with children or adolescents and families, interventions to prevent starting tobacco use, follow-up ≥ 6 months.
Study Appraisal/Synthesis methods
- Abstracts/titles independently assessed and data independently entered by two authors. Risk-of-bias assessed with the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool.
- Twenty-seven RCTs were included. Nine trials of never-smokers compared to a control provided data for meta-analysis. Family intervention trials had significantly fewer students who started smoking. Meta-analysis of twoRCTs of combined family and school interventions compared to school only, showed additional significant benefit. The common feature of effective high intensity interventions was encouraging authoritative parenting.
- Only 14 RCTs provided data for meta-analysis (about 1/3 of participants). Of the 13 RCTs which did not provide data for meta-analysis eight compared a family intervention to no intervention and one found significant effects, and five compared a family + school intervention to a school intervention and none found additional significant effects.
Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings
- There is moderate quality evidence that family-based interventions prevent children and adolescents starting to smoke.
Impact and interest:
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