The use of mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of diseases of the cornea

Harkin, Damien G., Sutherland, Allison J., Bray, Laura J., Foyn, Leanne, Li, Fiona J., & Cronin, Brendan G. (2017) The use of mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of diseases of the cornea. In Atkinson, Kerry (Ed.) The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells. Wiley/Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, pp. 524-543.

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As a key component of the ocular surface required for vision, the cornea has been extensively studied as a site for cell and tissue-based therapies. Historically, these treatments have consisted of donor corneal tissue transplants, but cultivated epithelial autografts have become established over the last 15 years as a routine treatment for ocular surface disease. Ultimately, these treatments are performed with the intention of restoring corneal transparency and a smooth ocular surface. The degree of success, however, is often dependent upon the inherent level of corneal inflammation at time of treatment. In this regard, the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have drawn attention to these cells as potential therapeutic agents for corneal repair. The origins for MSC-based therapies are founded in part on observations of the recruitment of endogenous bone marrow-derived cells to injured corneas, however, an increasing quantity of data is emerging for MSC administered following their isolation and ex vivo expansion from a variety of tissues including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord and dental pulp. In brief, evidence has emerged of cultured MSC, or their secreted products, having a positive impact on corneal wound healing and retention of corneal allografts in animal models. Optimal dosage, route of administration and timing of treatment, however, all remain active areas of investigation. Intriguingly, amidst these studies, have emerged reports of MSC transdifferentiation into corneal cells. Clearest evidence has been obtained with respect to expression of markers associated with the phenotype of corneal stromal cells. In contrast, the evidence for MSC conversion to corneal epithelial cell types remains inconclusive. In any case, the conversion of MSC into corneal cells seems unlikely to be an essential requirement for their clinical use. This field of research has recently become more complicated by reports of MSC-like properties for cultures established from the peripheral corneal stroma (limbal stroma). The relationship and relative value of corneal-MSC compared to traditional sources of MSC such as bone marrow are at present unclear. This chapter is divided into four main parts. After providing a concise overview of corneal structure and function, we will highlight the types of corneal diseases that are likely to benefit from the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of MSC. We will subsequently summarize the evidence supporting the case for MSC-based therapies in the treatment of corneal diseases. In the third section we will review the literature concerning the keratogenic potential of MSC. Finally, we will review the more recent literature indicating the presence of MSC-like cells derived from corneal tissue.

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ID Code: 94548
Item Type: Book Chapter
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Cornea, Mesenchymal stromal cell, Corneal transplantation, Stem cells, Cell therapy, Immunology
DOI: 10.1002/9781118907474.ch36
ISBN: 978-1-118-90751-1
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > TECHNOLOGY (100000) > MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (100400) > Regenerative Medicine (incl. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering) (100404)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300) > Ophthalmology (111301)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Biomedical Sciences
Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Deposited On: 07 Apr 2016 04:09
Last Modified: 12 Feb 2017 00:25

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