Mapping the risk of soil-transmitted helminthic infections in the Philippines

Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J., Salamat, Maria S., Leonardo, Lydia, Gray, Darren J., Carabin, Hélène, Halton, Kate, McManus, Donald P., Williams, Gail M., Rivera, Pilarita, Saniel, Ophelia, Hernandez, Leda, Yakob, Laith, McGarvey, Stephen, & Clements, Archie C.A. (2015) Mapping the risk of soil-transmitted helminthic infections in the Philippines. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease, 9(9), Article Number-e0003915.

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Abstract

Background

In order to increase the efficient allocation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease control resources in the Philippines, we aimed to describe for the first time the spatial variation in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm across the country, quantify the association between the physical environment and spatial variation of STH infection and develop predictive risk maps for each infection.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Data on STH infection from 35,573 individuals across the country were geolocated at the barangay level and included in the analysis. The analysis was stratified geographically in two major regions: 1) Luzon and the Visayas and 2) Mindanao. Bayesian geostatistical models of STH prevalence were developed, including age and sex of individuals and environmental variables (rainfall, land surface temperature and distance to inland water bodies) as predictors, and diagnostic uncertainty was incorporated. The role of environmental variables was different between regions of the Philippines. This analysis revealed that while A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections were widespread and highly endemic, hookworm infections were more circumscribed to smaller foci in the Visayas and Mindanao.

Conclusions/Significance

This analysis revealed significant spatial variation in STH infection prevalence within provinces of the Philippines. This suggests that a spatially targeted approach to STH interventions, including mass drug administration, is warranted. When financially possible, additional STH surveys should be prioritized to high-risk areas identified by our study in Luzon.

Impact and interest:

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ID Code: 94688
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: Helminths, Disease mapping, Epidemiology
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003915
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700) > Epidemiology (111706)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700) > Health Information Systems (incl. Surveillance) (111711)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700) > Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified (111799)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
Funding:
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2015 The Author(s)
Copyright Statement: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
Deposited On: 11 Apr 2016 00:46
Last Modified: 11 Apr 2016 21:57

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