Disease control and management
Fleming, Mary Louise, FitzGerald, Gerard, & Tenkate, Thomas (2015) Disease control and management. In Fleming, Mary Louise & Parker, Elizabeth A. (Eds.) Introduction to Public Health [3rd Ed.]. Elsevier Australia, Chatswood, N.S.W, pp. 234-259.
Globally, the main contributors to morbidity and mortality are chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Chronic disease is costly and partially avoidable, with around 60% of deaths and nearly 50% of the global disease burden attributable to these conditions. By 2020, chronic illnesses will likely be the leading cause of disability worldwide. Existing healthcare systems that focus on acute episodic health conditions, both national and international, cannot address the worldwide transition to chronic illness; nor are they appropriate for the ongoing care and management of those already dealing with chronic diseases. As such, chronic disease management requires integrated approaches that incorporate interventions targeted at both individuals and populations, and emphasise the shared risk factors of different conditions. International and Australian strategic planning documents articulate similar elements to manage chronic disease, including the need for aligning sectoral policies for health, forming partnerships, and engaging communities in decision-making.
Infectious diseases are also a common and significant contributor to ill health throughout the world. In many countries, this impact has been minimised by the combined efforts of preventative health measures and improved treatment methods. However, in low-income countries, infectious diseases remain the dominant cause of death and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that infectious diseases (including respiratory infections) still account for around 23% (or around 14 million) of all deaths each year, and result in over 4.6 billion episodes of diarrhoeal disease and 243 million cases of malaria each year (Lozano et al. 2012, WHO 2009).
In addition to the high level of mortality, infectious diseases disable many hundreds of millions of people each year, mainly in developing countries, with the global burden of disease from infectious diseases estimated to be around 300 million DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) (WHO 2012).
The aim of this chapter is to outline the impact that infectious diseases and chronic diseases have on the health of the community, describe the public health strategies used to reduce the burden of those diseases, and discuss the historic and emerging disease risks to public health. This chapter examines the comprehensive approaches implemented to prevent both chronic and infectious diseases, and to manage and care for communities with these conditions.
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|Item Type:||Book Chapter|
|Subjects:||Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH SERVICES (111700)
|Divisions:||Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Public Health & Social Work
|Deposited On:||11 Apr 2016 03:21|
|Last Modified:||12 Apr 2016 00:00|
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