Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs

Hughes, Stephen, Barry, John, Russell, Jeremy, Bell, Robert, & Gurung, Som (2016) Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219(8), pp. 1154-1161.

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How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple ‘normal’ sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude.

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ID Code: 94922
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: dinosaur, sauropod, siphon, circulation, internal jugular vein, vertebral venous plexus
DOI: 10.1242/jeb.137448
ISSN: 0022-0949
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2016 The Company of Biologists Ltd
Deposited On: 17 Apr 2016 23:53
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2016 05:32

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