Stimulating immune responses to fight cancer: Basic biology and mechanisms

O'Byrne, Kenneth (2015) Stimulating immune responses to fight cancer: Basic biology and mechanisms. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 11(Supplement S1), pp. 9-15.

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Chronic inflammation is now recognized as a major cause of malignant disease. In concert with various mechanisms (including DNA instability), hypoxia and activation of inflammatory bioactive lipid pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokines open the doorway to malignant transformation and proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in many cancers. A balance between stimulatory and inhibitory signals regulates the immune response to cancer. These include inhibitory checkpoints that modulate the extent and duration of the immune response and may be activated by tumor cells. This contributes to immune resistance, especially against tumor antigen-specific T-cells. Targeting these checkpoints is an evolving approach to cancer immunotherapy, designed to foster an immune response. The current focus of these trials is on the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Researchers have developed anti-PD-1 and anti-PDL-1 antibodies that interfere with the ligands and receptor and allow the tumor cell to be recognized and attacked by tumor-infiltrating T-cells. These are currently being studied in lung cancer. Likewise, CTLA-4 inhibitors, which have had success treating advanced melanoma, are being studied in lung cancer with encouraging results.

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ID Code: 95338
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Special Issue: Evolving Treatment Paradigms in Lung Cancer: Role of Immuno-Oncology. Proceedings of Bristol-Myers Squibb sponsored symposium held during the Australian Lung Cancer Conference, 17 October 2014, Sydney, Australia. Publication of this supplement has been sponsored by Bristol-Myers Squibb
Keywords: cancer; immune response; bioactive lipids; cytokines; hypoxia; immunotherapy
DOI: 10.1111/ajco.12410
ISSN: 1743-7555
Divisions: Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Deposited On: 02 May 2016 23:37
Last Modified: 04 May 2016 01:02

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