Effects of warm-up on blood gases, lactate and acid-base status during sprint swimming

Robergs, R.A., Costill, D.L., Fink, W.J., Williams, C., Pascoe, D.D., Chwalbinska-Moneta, J., & Davis, J.A. (1990) Effects of warm-up on blood gases, lactate and acid-base status during sprint swimming. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 11(4), pp. 273-278.

View at publisher


A standardized 200-m front crawl sprint swim (SpS) was used to evaluate the effects of warm-up on pH, blood gases, and the concentrations of lactate ([La-]) and bicarbonate ([HCO3-]) in arterialized and venous blood. Eight trained male swimmers performed two randomly assigned 200-m front crawl swims at previously determined intensities corresponding to 120% V̇O2max. One swim was preceded by a warm-up (WU trial) which consisted of a 400-m front crawl swim (82% V̇O2max), 400-m flutter kicking (45% V̇2max), and 4 × 50-m front crawl sprints (111% V̇2max). The second was performed without warm-up (NWU trial). Blood was sampled from a hyperemized earlobe and an antecubital vein before the warm-up, 9 min after the warm-up (1 min before the swim), immediately following the SpS, and at 2, 5, 10, and 20 min after the SpS. The warm-up exercise resulted in a higher pre-SpS [La-] in arterialized blood (3.1±0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.4 mmol × 1-1, p < 0.05), a higher hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in venous blood (45.9 ± 0.9 and 42.2 ± 0.8 nmol × 1-1, p < 0.001), and a lower arterialized blood [HCO3-] (25.1 ± 0.9 and 22.2 ± 0.8 mmol × 1-1, p < 0.05). The SpS was accompanied with higher heart rates during the WU trial (178 ± 3 and 169 ± 3 bpm; p < 0.05). After the SpS the absolute [La-] in arterialized blood was lower in the WU trial at 2 min of recovery (10.7 ± 0.6 and 12.8 ± 0.8 mmol × 1-1, p < 0.05). However, during the WU trial the increase in blood La (ΔLa) caused by the SpS was significantly lower at each stage for both blood compartments. Venous blood pCO2 was lower in the WU trial after the SpS (71.5 ± 3.0 and 78.4 ± 2.7 mmHg; p < 0.05), and the [H+ ] in venous blood was lower in the WU trial until 5 min of recovery (p < 0.05). These results indicate that warm-up exercise can reduce the disturbance in blood acid-base balance during 2 min of intense swimming. It is proposed that the acid-base differences resulted from increased oxidative energy metabolism and a subsequent reduction in lactate and CO2 production.

Impact and interest:

13 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
10 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

ID Code: 96704
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: bicarbonate; carbon dioxide; lactic acid; proton, acid base balance; adult; article; clinical trial; controlled study; exercise; human; human experiment; hyperemia; male; normal human; randomized controlled trial; swimming; warming, Adult; Animal; Bicarbonates; Carbon Dioxide; Chick Embryo; Human; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Hyperemia; Lactates; Male; Swimming
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1024806
ISSN: 1439-3964 (online) 0172-4622 (print)
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences
Deposited On: 07 Jul 2016 01:50
Last Modified: 07 Jul 2016 01:50

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page