Modification of the Hydroxyl Surface in Cesium Acetate Intercalated Kaolinite
Changes in the hydroxyl surfaces of cesium acetate intercalated kaolinite have been studied over the ambient to predehydroxylation temperature range using a combination of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, combined with X-ray diffraction. Upon intercalation of a low-defect kaolinite with cesium acetate, the kaolinite layers expanded to 14.0 Å. Upon heating the intercalate to 50 C, the kaolinite expands to 17.0 Å. Over the temperature range 100-200 C, a third phase with a d(001) spacing of 12.80 Å was observed. These expansions are reversible, and upon cooling the intercalation complex and upon exposure to air for sufficient lengths of time, the d(001) spacing returned to 14.0 Å. These expansions are in harmony with thermal decomposition measurements. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy shows that the cesium acetate intercalated kaolinite is almost completely intercalated and that the thermal treatment of the intercalate is reversible. The Raman spectrum of the hydroxyl stretching region of the intercalated kaolinite showed a new band at 3606 cm-1, which was attributed to the inner surface hydroxyl hydrogen bonded to the acetate ion. Mild heating of the intercalated complex to 50 C caused a rearrangement of the surface structure with a Raman band being observed at 3610 cm-1. It is proposed that the 3610 cm-1 band is associated with the 17.0 Å phase and that the 3606 cm-1 band is associated with the 14.0 Å phase. Further thermal treatment over the 100-200 C temperature ranges resulted in two hydroxyl bands at 3618 and 3609 cm-1. The 3618 cm-1 band is attributed to the inner hydroxyl. At the predehydroxylation temperature for cesium acetate intercalated kaolinite (~300 C), two bands were observed at 3609 and 3619 cm-1. Above this temperature, no hydroxyls are spectroscopically evident. Upon cooling to room temperature, the Raman spectra of the hydroxyl surfaces are identical to that of the initial intercalation complex, showing that the thermal modification of the kaolinite surfaces is reversible. The thermal treatment results in some minor deintercalation.
Impact and interest:
Citation counts are sourced monthly from and citation databases.
These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.
Citations counts from theindexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Additional Information:||This article is freely available from the American Chemical Society website 12 months after the publication date. See links to publisher website in this record.|
|Divisions:||Past > QUT Faculties & Divisions > Faculty of Science and Technology|
|Copyright Owner:||Copyright 2001 American Chemical Society|
|Copyright Statement:||The contents of this journal can be freely accessed online via the ACS web page 12 months after publication. See link to ACS website.|
|Deposited On:||26 Sep 2007 00:00|
|Last Modified:||10 Aug 2011 15:18|
Repository Staff Only: item control page