Diagnosis, assessment and management of tetanus, rabies and botulism

Lipman, Jeffrey & Boots, Robert J. (2016) Diagnosis, assessment and management of tetanus, rabies and botulism. In Webb, A., Finfer, S., Gattinoni, L., & Singer, M. (Eds.) Oxford Textbook of Critical Care [2nd Ed.]. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, pp. 1164-1167.

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Abstract

Key Points

  • Tetanus and botulism are caused by neurotoxins whereas rabies is a viral zoonosis.

  • Clostridium tetani exotoxins cause the syndrome of tetanus which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, autonomic instability and sometimes convulsions. Without expensive intensive care treatment the disease is often fatal

  • Good wound care, metronidazole and symptomatic care are important to provide a good outcome , and as the disease does not produce immunity, active immunization with antitetanus toxin must follow.

  • Botulism is a toxin related illness generally the result of food poisoning leading to an ascending paralysis with neural destruction. Recovery is prolonged and often with persisting weakness especially where mechanical ventilation has been required.

  • Rabies and associated Lyssavirus infection is uncommon but with potential reservoirs in may countries. Encephalitic disease in the previously unimmunized is a fatal illness.

Impact and interest:

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ID Code: 97735
Item Type: Book Chapter
Additional URLs:
Keywords: Tetanus, Rabies, Botulism
ISBN: 9780199600830
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > IMMUNOLOGY (110700)
Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > NURSING (111000)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Schools > School of Nursing
Copyright Owner: Oxford University Press 2016
Deposited On: 02 Aug 2016 23:45
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2016 02:38

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