Complications in the 355 nm pulsed-laser polymerization of N-vinylcarbazole

Yin, M., Barner-Kowollik, C., Heuts, J. P. A., & Davis, T. P. (2001) Complications in the 355 nm pulsed-laser polymerization of N-vinylcarbazole. Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 22(13).

View at publisher


The propagation kinetics of N-vinylcarbazole (NVC) were carefully investigated via the IUPAC-recommended pulsed-laser polymerization/size-exclusion chromatography technique (PLP-SEC) in the temperature range between -20 and 20 °C using 355 nm pulsed irradiation and the photo initiator 2.2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) as a source of primary radicals. Using this experimental approach, propagation rate coefficients, kp, were not accessible for temperatures exceeding 20 °C. There is strong evidence that the monomer itself is excited by pulsed-laser light of 355 nm, thus contributing to the polymerization process via the formation of free radicals. In addition, UV light-induced cationic polymerization processes can not be ignored as a possible side reaction. NVC polymer also absorbs strongly at 355 nm and we speculate that this may lead to bond scission and branch network formation in the PLP process. Laser-controlled molecular weight distributions are only obtained for reaction temperatures below 20 °C. The apparent Arrhenius parameters, EA, and A, are 22.8 kJ · mol-1 and 3.6 x 107 L · mol-1 · s-1, respectively. These results are divergent from recent literature data.

Impact and interest:

6 citations in Scopus
Search Google Scholar™
6 citations in Web of Science®

Citation counts are sourced monthly from Scopus and Web of Science® citation databases.

These databases contain citations from different subsets of available publications and different time periods and thus the citation count from each is usually different. Some works are not in either database and no count is displayed. Scopus includes citations from articles published in 1996 onwards, and Web of Science® generally from 1980 onwards.

Citations counts from the Google Scholar™ indexing service can be viewed at the linked Google Scholar™ search.

ID Code: 99050
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Cited By :6
Export Date: 5 September 2016
Correspondence Address: Davis, T.P.; Ctr. for Adv. Macromolecular Design, Sch. of Chem. Eng./Indust. Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; email:
References: Buback, M., Gilbert, R.G., Hutchinson, R.A., Klumperman, B., Kuchta, F.-D., Manders, B.G., O'Driscoll, K.F., Schweer, J., (1995) Macromol. Chem. Phys., 196, p. 3267; Beuermann, S., Buback, M., Davis, T.P., Gilbert, R.G., Hutchinson, R.A., Olaj, O.F., Russell, G.T., Van Herk, A.M., (1997) Macromol. Chem. Phys., 198, p. 1545; Coote, M.L., Zammit, M.D., Davis, T.P., (1996) Trends Polym. Sci., 4, p. 189; Masataka, M., Sadahito, M., Yamamoto, M., (1999) Polym. J., 10, p. 878; Terell, D.R., (1982) Polymer, 23, p. 1045; Tada, K., Shirota, Y., Mikawa, H., (1973) J. Polym. Sci. A-1, 11, p. 2961; Al-Abidin, K.M.Z., Jones, R.G., (1979) J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1, 75, p. 774; Pearson, J.M., (1985) Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, p. 257. , H. F. Mark, Ed., Wiley, New York; Buback, M., Busch, M., Kowollik, C., (2000) Macromol. Theory Simul., 9, p. 442; Desobry, V., Dietliker, K., Hüsler, R., Misev, L., Rembold, M., Rist, G., Rutsch, W., (1990) Radiation Curing of Polymeric Materials, p. 92. , C. E. Hoyle, J. F. Kinstle, Eds., ACS Symp. Ser. No. 417, American Chemical Society Washington D.C; Davis, T.P., O'Driscoll, K.F., Piton, M.C., Winnik, M.A., (1989) Macromolecules, 22, p. 2785; Sitaramaiah, G., Jacobs, D., (1970) Polymer, 11, p. 165; Ghiggino, K.P., Archibald, D.A., Thistlethwaite, P.J., (1980) J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett., 18, p. 673; Heuts, J.P.A., Gilbert, R.G., Radom, L., (1995) Macromolecules, 28, p. 8771; Zammit, M.D., Davis, T.P., Willett, G.D., (1997) Macromolecules, 30, p. 5655; Zammit, M.D., Davis, T.P., Rees, M.T.L., Russell, G.T., (1998) Macromolecules, 31, p. 1763
Keywords: acetophenone derivative, carbazole derivative, n vinylcarbazole, polymer, radical, unclassified drug, article, chemical analysis, chemical reaction, gel permeation chromatography, irradiation, kinetics, polymerization, pulsed laser polymerization, reaction analysis, temperature dependence, temperature sensitivity
DOI: 10.1002/1521-3927(20010901)22:13<1035::AID-MARC1035>3.0.CO;2-Y
ISSN: 10221336
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Deposited On: 22 Sep 2016 04:50
Last Modified: 22 Sep 2016 04:50

Export: EndNote | Dublin Core | BibTeX

Repository Staff Only: item control page