Exploring the mechanisms in sted-enhanced direct laser writing

Fischer, J., Mueller, J. B., Quick, A. S., Kaschke, J., Barner-Kowollik, C., & Wegener, M. (2015) Exploring the mechanisms in sted-enhanced direct laser writing. Advanced Optical Materials, 3(2).

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Abstract

Stimulated-emission-depletion direct laser writing allows for performing 3D optical lithography beyond the Abbe diffraction limit. However, the underlying mechanisms and limitations are poorly understood. In order to clarify for the case of 7-diethylamino-3-thenoylcoumarin (DETC) as photoinitiator in pentaerythritol triacrylate, transient photoluminescence experiments as well as lithography experiments with variable repetition rate are performed. In addition, several coinitiators and DETC derivatives are investigated. While the photoluminescence of the DETC photoresist exhibits a two-photon excitation behavior and can be largely depleted, lithography under the same conditions surprisingly shows an effective three-photon excitation behavior at high repetition rates and an effective four-photon behavior at low repetition rates. From the comprehensive investigation, it is concluded that at high repetition rates, residual absorption of the depletion laser is the limiting mechanism, whereas at low repetition rates an effective four-photon process leads to direct radical generation that cannot be depleted. Lithography beyond the diffraction limit inspired by stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy holds promise for nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions. The mechanisms of photo-initiation and photoinhibition of the polymerization are investigated in a model photoresist by tuning the repetition rate of excitation and depletion laser nearly five orders of magnitude. An adapted model for the effective exposure dose is presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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ID Code: 99428
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Cited By :6
Export Date: 5 September 2016
Correspondence Address: Fischer, J.; Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)Germany
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Keywords: Direct laser writing, Lithography, Multiphoton absorption, Stimulated emission depletion, Super-resolution
DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400413
ISSN: 21951071
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Deposited On: 22 Sep 2016 04:50
Last Modified: 26 Sep 2016 23:05

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