Controlled radical polymerization and in-depth mass-spectrometric characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s and their photopatterning on surfaces

Steinkoenig, J., Bloesser, F. R., Huber, B., Welle, A., Trouillet, V., Weidner, S. M., Barner, L., Roesky, P. W., Yuan, J., Goldmann, A. S., & Barner-Kowollik, C. (2016) Controlled radical polymerization and in-depth mass-spectrometric characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s and their photopatterning on surfaces. Polymer Chemistry, 7(2).

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Abstract

The preparation and characterization of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) bearing a polystyrene backbone via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and their photolithographic patterning on silicon wafers is reported. The controlled radical polymerization of the styrenic ionic liquid (IL) monomers ([BVBIM]X, X = Cl- or Tf2N-) by RAFT polymerization is investigated in detail. We provide a general synthetic tool to access this class of PILs with controlled molecular weight and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution (2000 g mol-1 ≤ Mn ≤ 10-000 g mol-1 with dispersities between 1.4 and 1.3 for p([BVBIM]Cl); 2100 g mol-1 ≤ MP ≤ 14-000 g mol-1 for p([BVBIM]Tf2N)). More importantly, we provide an in-depth characterization of the PILs and demonstrate a detailed mass spectrometric analysis via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) as well as-for the first time for PILs-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Importantly, p([BVBIM]Cl) and p([DMVBIM]Tf2N) were photochemically patterned on silicon wafers. Therefore, a RAFT agent carrying a photoactive group based on ortho-quinodimethane chemistry-more precisely photoenol chemistry-was photochemically linked for subsequent controlled radical polymerization of [BVBIM]Cl and [DMVBIM]Tf2N. The successful spatially-resolved photografting is evidenced by surface-sensitive characterization methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The presented method allows for the functionalization of diverse surfaces with poly(ionic liquid)s. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

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ID Code: 99476
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Cited By :2
Export Date: 5 September 2016
Correspondence Address: Yuan, J.; Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Research Campus GolmGermany; email: Jiayin.Yuan@mpikg.mpg.de
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Keywords: Atom transfer radical polymerization, Characterization, Chlorine, Electrodeposition, Electrospray ionization, Free radical polymerization, Ionic liquids, Ionization, Liquids, Living polymerization, Mass spectrometers, Mass spectrometry, Molecular weight, Molecular weight distribution, Organic polymers, Polymerization, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Silicon wafers, Spectrometry, Controlled radical polymerization, Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Mass spectrometric analysis, Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization, Narrow molecular weight distributions, Photolithographic patterning, Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
DOI: 10.1039/c5py01320h
ISSN: 17599954
Divisions: Current > Schools > School of Chemistry, Physics & Mechanical Engineering
Current > Institutes > Institute for Future Environments
Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Science & Engineering Faculty
Deposited On: 22 Sep 2016 04:50
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2016 22:55

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