Effects of smoking cessation on presynaptic dopamine function of addicted male smokers

Rademacher, Lena, Prinz, Susanne, Winz, Oliver, Henkel, Karsten, Dietrich, Claudia A., Schmaljohann, Jörn, Shali, Siamak Mohammadkhani, Schabram, Ina, Stoppe, Christian, Cumming, Paul, Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter, Kumakura, Yoshitaka, Coburn, Mark, Mottaghy, Felix M., Gründer, Gerhard, & Vernaleken, Ingo (2016) Effects of smoking cessation on presynaptic dopamine function of addicted male smokers. Biological Psychiatry, 80(3), pp. 198-206.

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Abstract

Background

There is evidence of abnormal cerebral dopamine transmission in nicotine-dependent smokers, but it is unclear whether dopaminergic abnormalities are due to acute nicotine abuse or whether they persist with abstinence. We addressed this question by conducting longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) examination of smokers before and after 3 months of abstinence.

Methods

We obtained baseline 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA)-PET scans in 15 nonsmokers and 30 nicotine-dependent smokers, who either smoked as per their usual habit or were in acute withdrawal. All smokers then underwent cessation treatment, and successful abstainers were re-examined by FDOPA-PET after 3 months of abstinence (n = 15). Uptake of FDOPA was analyzed using a steady-state model yielding estimates of the dopamine synthesis capacity (K); the turnover of tracer dopamine formed in living brain (kloss); and the tracer distribution volume (Vd), which is an index of dopamine storage capacity.

Results

Compared with nonsmokers, K was 15% to 20% lower in the caudate nuclei of consuming smokers. Intraindividual comparisons of consumption and long-term abstinence revealed significant increases in K in the right dorsal and left ventral caudate nuclei. Relative to acute withdrawal, Vd significantly decreased in the right ventral and dorsal caudate after prolonged abstinence. Severity of nicotine dependence significantly correlated with dopamine synthesis capacity and dopamine turnover in the bilateral ventral putamen of consuming smokers.

Conclusions

The results suggest a lower dopamine synthesis capacity in nicotine-dependent smokers that appears to normalize with abstinence. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of dopamine in nicotine addiction to help develop smoking prevention and cessation treatments.

Impact and interest:

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ID Code: 99639
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Keywords: abstinence, dopamine, FDOPA, nicotine dependence, smoking cessation, striatum
DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.009
ISSN: 1873-2402
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES (170000) > PSYCHOLOGY (170100) > Biological Psychology (Neuropsychology Psychopharmacology Physiological Psychology) (170101)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Current > Schools > School of Psychology & Counselling
Deposited On: 13 Oct 2016 00:32
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2016 21:18

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