The effect of manipulations to target contrast on emmetropization in chick

Schmid, Katrina L., Brinkworth, Darren R., Wallace, Kate M., & Hess, Robert F. (2006) The effect of manipulations to target contrast on emmetropization in chick. Vision Research, 46(6-7), pp. 1099-1107.

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Emmetropization is dependent on visual feedback and presumably some measure of the optical and image quality of the eye. We investigated the effect of simple alterations to image contrast on eye growth and refractive development. A 1.6 cyc/deg square-wave-grating target was located at the end of a 3.3 cm cone, imaged by a +30 D lens and applied monocularly to the eyes of 8-day-old chicks. Eleven different contrast targets were tested: 95, 67, 47.5, 33.5, 24, 17, 12, 8.5, 4.2, 2.1, and 0%. Refractive error (RE), vitreous chamber depth (VC) and axial length (AL) varied with the contrast of the image (RE diff: F(10,86)=12.420, p<0.0005; VC diff: F(10,86)=8.756, p<0.0005; AL diff: F(10,86)=9.240, p<0.0005). Target contrasts 4.2% and lower produced relative myopia (4.2%: RE diff=-7.48+/-2.26 D, p=0.987; 2.1%: RE diff=-7.22+/-2.77 D, p=0.951) of similar amount to that observed in response to a featureless 0% contrast target (RE diff=-9.11+/-4.68 D). For target contrast levels 47.5% and greater isometropia was maintained (95%: RE diff =1.83+/-2.78 D; 67%: RE diff=0.14+/-1.84 D; 47.5%: RE diff=0.25+/-1.82 D). Contrasts in between produced an intermediate amount of myopia (33.5%: RE diff=-2.81+/-1.80 D; 24%: RE diff=-3.45+/-1.64 D; 17%: RE diff=-3.19+/-1.54 D; 12%: RE diff=-4.08+/-3.56 D; 8.5%: RE diff=-4.09+/-3.60 D). We conclude that image contrast provides important visual information for the eye growth control system or that contrast must reach a threshold value for some other emmetropization signal to function.

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7 citations in Web of Science®
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ID Code: 4278
Item Type: Journal Article
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: For more information, please refer to the journal’s website (see link) or contact the author. Author contact details:
Keywords: Contrast, chick, myopia, refractive error, spatial frequency
DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2005.08.017
ISSN: 0042-6989
Subjects: Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification > MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES (110000) > OPTOMETRY AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (111300)
Divisions: Current > QUT Faculties and Divisions > Faculty of Health
Current > Institutes > Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
Copyright Owner: Copyright 2006 Elsevier
Deposited On: 13 Jun 2006 00:00
Last Modified: 29 Feb 2012 13:23

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